Search results for bail in

The Bail-in: Financial Collapse To Steal Your Money

The GFC of 2008, triggered by the illegal leveraging of the US housing market, saw the reserves of countries drained around the globe.

The next round, just getting underway, will drain the reserves of medium depositors through bail-in provisions that have recently been activated in most countries. I say medium because the big guys are always forewarned and take protective action, whilst the smallest depositors, at least in some jurisdictions, are protected by threshold protections put in place of, say, $100,000.

This model was given its test run in Cyprus in March/April 2013.

The global bail-in model was given the go ahead at the G20 meeting in Brisbane in November 2014 and endorsed by the Financial Stability Board (FSB), one of those secretive global banking organisations that you probably haven’t heard of and which coordinates policy for the central banks of the world, in its review document of April 2013 (the timing of this report illustrates that the Cyprian bail-in was very clearly a test run). It was implemented in Europe and the US effective January 1 this year (just in time for the unwinding that began from the first day of stockmarket trading in 2016). Australia appears to have not yet got its legislation over the line, in part because of proactive pushback by the public. This example from Italy, however, suggests that in some jurisdictions it has been in place for a while and may have no small depositor protection.

This recent video from David Icke puts the bail-in practice into its broader context, joining the dots in the actions of the global elite to fleece the public of their assets. As David explains, none of this, including the global financial crises themselves are by accident and are carefully planned over a long period of time.

A Crisis Worse Than ISIS? Bail-Ins Begin

While the mainstream media focus on ISIS extremists, a threat that has gone virtually unreported is that your life savings could be wiped out in a massive derivatives collapse. Bank bail-ins have begun in Europe, and the infrastructure is in place in the US.  Poverty also kills.

At the end of November, an Italian pensioner hanged himself after his entire €100,000 savings were confiscated in a bank “rescue” scheme. He left a suicide note blaming the bank, where he had been a customer for 50 years and had invested in bank-issued bonds. But he might better have blamed the EU and the G20’s Financial Stability Board, which have imposed an “Orderly Resolution” regime that keeps insolvent banks afloat by confiscating the savings of investors and depositors. Some 130,000 shareholders and junior bond holders suffered losses in the “rescue.”

The pensioner’s bank was one of four small regional banks that had been put under special administration over the past two years. The €3.6 billion ($3.83 billion) rescue plan launched by the Italian government uses a newly-formed National Resolution Fund, which is fed by the country’s healthy banks. But before the fund can be tapped, losses must be imposed on investors; and in January, EU rules will require that they also be imposed on depositors. According to a December 10th article on BBC.com:

The rescue was a “bail-in” – meaning bondholders suffered losses – unlike the hugely unpopular bank bailouts during the 2008 financial crisis, which cost ordinary EU taxpayers tens of billions of euros.

Correspondents say [Italian Prime Minister] Renzi acted quickly because in January, the EU is tightening the rules on bank rescues – they will force losses on depositors holding more than €100,000, as well as bank shareholders and bondholders.

. . . [L]etting the four banks fail under those new EU rules next year would have meant “sacrificing the money of one million savers and the jobs of nearly 6,000 people”.

That is what is predicted for 2016: massive sacrifice of savings and jobs to prop up a “systemically risky” global banking scheme.

Bail-in Under Dodd-Frank

That is all happening in the EU. Is there reason for concern in the US?

According to former hedge fund manager Shah Gilani, writing for Money Morning, there is. In a November 30th article titled “Why I’m Closing My Bank Accounts While I Still Can,” he writes:

[It is] entirely possible in the next banking crisis that depositors in giant too-big-to-fail failing banks could have their money confiscated and turned into equity shares. . . .

If your too-big-to-fail (TBTF) bank is failing because they can’t pay off derivative bets they made, and the government refuses to bail them out, under a mandate titled “Adequacy of Loss-Absorbing Capacity of Global Systemically Important Banks in Resolution,” approved on Nov. 16, 2014, by the G20’s Financial Stability Board, they can take your deposited money and turn it into shares of equity capital to try and keep your TBTF bank from failing.

Once your money is deposited in the bank, it legally becomes the property of the bank. Gilani explains:

Your deposited cash is an unsecured debt obligation of your bank. It owes you that money back.

If you bank with one of the country’s biggest banks, who collectively have trillions of dollars of derivatives they hold “off balance sheet” (meaning those debts aren’t recorded on banks’ GAAP balance sheets), those debt bets have a superior legal standing to your deposits and get paid back before you get any of your cash.

. . . Big banks got that language inserted into the 2010 Dodd-Frank law meant to rein in dangerous bank behavior.

The banks inserted the language and the legislators signed it, without necessarily understanding it or even reading it. At over 2,300 pages and still growing, the Dodd Frank Act is currently the longest and most complicated bill ever passed by the US legislature.

The rest of the article is here.

Secret of Iceland economic miracle: Jail bankers, let banks go bust & no bail-out

I encourage you to watch this video, to understand how the Icelanders rapidly recovered from the 2008 crisis. Except there’s one core element not discussed. Iceland does not have a private, Rothschild-controlled central bank (and I have confirmed this with an Icelandic friend). They don’t have a leech attached to their economic heart, bleeding them dry, as most other countries of the world do, including the so-called economic powerhouses of the world – United States, Russia and China. No Rothschild central bank, no debt. Get the picture? It’s pretty simple, really, but its mired in obfuscation.

What surprises me is the key politicians responsible are still alive (look at the history behind the actions of the Polish government all killed in a plane crash in Russia a few years ago for a recent example), and that the mainstream press actually mentions it.

And here is a 40 second summary of what and how it was put in place in the United States.

The Ebola Epidemic Silver-Lining: IMF Bailouts For Everyone

Here is an interesting take on the Ebola Epidemic. It’s always good advice to follow the money…

Treasury still working on Australian ‘bail-in’ law

Thank you, John. For me, the connection to the confiscation of depositor’s funds in Cyprus is the key. In line with David Icke’s “Totalitarian Tiptoe” model, we see legislation being put in place under which depositor’s funds can be confiscated around the world.

I remember a phrase from my old world business days – “Think Global, Act Local”. Our dark friends are masters at this. Another example of this is the changing of planning laws across the planet to allow the construction of the tiny apartments now being built in New York. 10’ x 30’ apartments. It’s the format for the dense, urbanised housing that is planned for those who manage to survive in the “new world”. Of course, such changes are enacted at the state and local council level, and most don’t see how this is being rolled out globally.

Richard

 

Small beans, but indicative of the machinations of the money people.  “For profit” when going well, socialised when not.  What a great set up! 

JR

Citizens Electoral Council of Australia

Media Release  Thursday, 20 March 2014

Craig Isherwood‚ National Secretary
PO Box 376‚ COBURG‚ VIC 3058
Phone: 1800 636 432
Email: cec@cecaust.com.au
Website: http://www.cecaust.com.au/

Treasury still working on Australian ‘bail-in’ law—demand to know what’s in it

Senior Treasury figures have confirmed to the Citizens Electoral Council that the “bail-in” legislation about which the CEC warned in its full-page advertisement in The Australian on 3 December, is still under preparation.

In response to the public’s concern, the officials claimed that “bail-in” does not apply to bank deposits, only to a new type of bank bond.

However, given the way bail-in has been applied around the world, and the Australian government’s own track record with bank deposits, the Australian people must demand to know exactly what will be in the legislation.

First, take the government’s approach to bank deposits. Abbott and Hockey are keeping the legislation that Rudd rammed through last year, to seize deposits in bank accounts that have been “inactive” for three years. A government source has revealed that Abbott and Hockey are keeping this measure, because the government is now dependent on this “revenue”.

Second, be aware of how bail-in has been implemented in other countries, under the supervision of the same IMF-Financial Stability Board-G20 nexus supervising it in Australia:

  • In March 2013 the IMF, European Commission and European Central Bank bailed in depositors in the major banks of Cyprus, when the impending failure of those banks threatened to ignite another wave of bank failures across Europe. Even though this seizure of deposits was for amounts above the guaranteed threshold of 100,000 euros, it so destroyed confidence in the banking system that all accounts were frozen to avoid bank runs, and Cyprus was plunged into financial chaos and economic collapse.
  • That same month the president of the Eurozone finance ministers, Jeroen Dijsselbloem, declared the Cyprus bail-in was now the “template” for the entire Eurozone.
  • On 13 October 2013 the IMF’s Fiscal Monitor report proposed a one-off, across-the-board seizure of 10% of the private wealth of the citizens of Europe, from their bank accounts, to reduce public debt.
  • The Reserve Bank of New Zealand has implemented its own bail-in policy called Open Bank Resolution, in which depositors have no protection, but like all “unsecured creditors” will see a portion of their accounts seized to keep the bank going. The RBNZ brags that its OBR policy is aligned with the Financial Stability Board’s Key Attributes of Effective Resolution   Regimes, which includes bail-in.

Under the pressure they are getting from the public, the Australian government is trying to claim that its planned bail-in law doesn’t involve seizing deposits, but the public should not accept that reassurance until it is shown in writing in the legislation.

The CEC is leading the fight to force the government to come clean on this issue, and abandon any plans it has for depositor bail-ins. Join the fight!

Click here to sign the CEC’s statement against bail-in and, instead, for a Glass-Steagall separation of risky investment banking from retail banking, so that deposits in retail banks are kept safe.

Click here for a free copy of the CEC’s new pamphlet, Glass-Steagall NOW!, which shows how stopping the global financial meltdown begins with Glass-Steagall.

Click here to join the CEC as a member.

Click here to refer others to receive regular email updates from the Citizens Electoral Council of Australia.


 

The War On Paper Currency Begins: ECB Votes To “Scrap” 500 Euro Bill

Update: in case there was any doubt about the ECB’s true intentions, we just got the official “denial”:

  • DRAGHI: ANY ECB ACTION ON EU500 NOTE IS NOT ABOUT REDUCING CASH

Translation: the ECB action is only about reducing physical cash, some 30% of it to be specific.

* * *

The first shot in the global war on cash was just fired, by none other than the ECB, which moments ago Handelsblatt reported…

ECB wants to stop issuing 500 Euro bills – our exclusive https://t.co/LLe2qyhBjK

— Daniel Schäfer (@schaeferdaniel) February 15, 2016

… and Bloomberg confirmed – ECB COUNCIL VOTES TO SCRAP EU500 NOTE: HANDELSBLATT – has voted to scrap the second highest denominated European bank note in circulation.

… after the CHF 1000 note.

So what, big deal, eliminate it. The people will still have 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 euro bills right.

As we wrote just one week ago, the answer is not that simple at all. Recall that the €500 note is the second highest currency denomination in G10, after the CHF1,000 note. More importantly, the total value of €500 notes in circulation amounts to €306.8bn and has been rising…

End of quote.

Again, let’s recognise how so many moves are interlinked.

As the world moves towards a regime of negative interest rates, TPTB do not want people able to take their money out of the banking system as cash, thus saving themselves the cost of keeping it inside the system, which is what negative interest rates mean. It’s a good justification in (their) practical terms to eliminate cash and make all money electronic. This makes control much tighter and means they can easily take someone off the system by confiscating your money and shutting down your access to the system. Mind you, the current system doesn’t stop them, as Dr Rima Laibow experienced a year or so ago and Mark Phillips experienced back in the 80’s. But at least currently you can find ways around it.

Not when it’s all electronic.

It also means you can’t slip around their quietly enacted bail in legislation (activated In Europe and the US on January 1 this year) that has depositors becoming a low rated, unsecured creditor to the bank, which means when their high stakes gambling called derivative exposure goes bust, its depositors will fund their survival.

Paying electronically, whether with a credit or debit card, or Apple Pay or similar, is very convenient, and most don’t think about the risks in this system, as outlined above. It is all very easy when the prison bars are attractive to the inmates, and it’s all fine until they close the door and lock it, then throw away the key. Actually, most still won’t notice.

The modern smartphone has us buy our own personal tracking device that we would never accept if we were told we have to carry it with us at all times. You can be tracked to within a few feet.

I could give you many other examples.

The Big Short is a timely warning for 2016

The recently released movie “The Big Short” came highly recommended from several sources, so I was keen to view it – and it did not disappoint. It tells the story of a few people who recognised that the 2007 housing bubble in the US had been massively exacerbated by packaging housing mortgages together as a tradeable instrument (Mortgage Backed Securities or Mortgage Bonds) and on sold. And as the game accelerated, the worst of the mortgages, including many that didn’t actually exist, were packaged up as Collateralised Debt Obligation (CDO). Rated as AAA by the credit agencies, they were very often not, and when interest rate clauses on the loans kicked in in 2007, it was only a matter of time. But this then got amplified through the creation of Synthetic CDOs, effectively a bet on a bet, or a derivative instrument. The film claims the Synthetic CDO market was 40 times the underlying CDO market. The 2008 global GFC owes its genesis to this scam. If this subject interests you, I highly recommend the movie for its insights. Jon Schwarz says:

What sets The Big Short apart and makes it truly great is that it portrays this worldwide, straight-faced fraud accurately; that is, as not just dangerous and enraging, but also extremely funny. It calls to mind Monty Python’s famous dead parrot sketch about a pet store salesman who defrauds his customer and then offers an endless stream of preposterous, contradictory obfuscations to conceal the obvious reality. The Big Short demonstrates that we’re now all living in that pet store.

End of quote.

It’s also interesting for what it doesn’t say, which is the abundant evidence that this bubble was orchestrated, generating yet another harvesting of assets from the public into the hands of the banks and their owners. It also does not discuss how the GFC was used to sweep all remaining government level reserves into the hands of the banksters via “too big to fail” bailouts.

The movie does mention that no banks or major bank principals were prosecuted, that one of those who shorted this market (Michael Burry) who tried to tell the US government about how he knew there was an issue was treated with FBI and IRS attention (the usual treatment of whistleblowers) and that similar instruments began to be sold in 2015 called a “bespoke tranche opportunity” – a CDO by any other name.

For me, the real value is in alerting us to what we are about to witness, in my opinion. The derivatives market in general is absolutely huge and the underlying market is falling apart. I have shared many underlying indicators with you of the state of the global economy. In many ways, it’s worse than 2008 and there are no governmental reserves left to steal. Many countries now have “bail in” legislation in place, which means the banks’ depositors become a low ranked, unprotected creditor, meaning they’ll be taking your savings this time.

It seems that falls in the Chinese stockmarket are driving falls elsewhere. However, the following chart shows you this is a loaded gun.

This tells us that the Chinese market would have to fall by about 70% to approach the valuations of the major global markets, which are themselves falsely elevated. If you are looking for a loaded gun, this is it.

It’s as if the global economy has been hollowed out underneath the stockmarket, leaving it as the only indicator that things are OK…

I have said before that I consider that when this comes apart, it will make 2008 look like a Sunday school picnic. I have seen nothing to change my view.

The Big Short tells its story well, and it shares some insights we can all learn from; and you may like to read the rest of Jon Schwarz’s article.

When you Deposit Funds in a Bank, it Becomes “Their Money”

Although there has been quite a bit said and written about this recently, I felt it important enough to revisit, as I don’t believe the reality of your status as a bank depositor has been fully understood by many people. I quote:

The world is awash with “promises”. Nearly everything we think of as having “value” is because of a promise behind it. A few examples; your bank accounts, retirement funds, bonds and even the dollar bills in your pocket. Your bank account for example, once you deposit the money it is no longer yours. You can argue this if you wish but we now know this is true for sure after recent “bail in” legislations passed throughout the west. When you deposit funds into a bank, it then becomes “their money” held for you …they “owe” it to you.

Do not take this lightly, lawmakers around the world have made this the new reality. A little known fact, in 1845 Britain passed banking law that made depositors (unsecured creditors), this is still precedent to this day. When you deposit money you “accept a liability” from your bank and are classified as an unsecured creditor. In other words, “get in line with everyone else”!

Same thing with many retirement accounts. Think about Social Security. When you get your annual statement form, it comes with an asterisk. This is to inform you they “might need to reduce benefits”. With any retirement account you are relying on the custodian to make payments to you upon retirement. Think about state and municipal retirement accounts promising the good life, they are nearly ALL underfunded. Meaning there is not enough money in there to make (promised) future payments unless some sort of magically higher returns are realized. These are underfunded by the TRILLIONS of dollars!

Bonds are an obvious asset class where a “promise” is relied on. Dollars on the other hand seem the most misunderstood by the public while being the biggest leap of faith in all asset classes. Dollars rely on the “full faith and credit” of the U.S. government (a bankrupt entity) yet the populace sleeps through the night secure knowing they own dollars. ALL non backed, fiat currencies in the past have failed. The dollar is the widest spread and widely owned fiat the world has ever known, its failure will be spectacular upon arrival!

I wanted to point out the above “promises” as a basis to speak about trust or confidence. The financial world turns on the axis of “trust”. This trust was nearly broken in 2008 and is the reason the Federal Reserve needed to secretly lend $16 trillion all over the world. If the Fed had not come up with these funds, failures would have spread and trust would have been broken amongst the banks/other financial institutions and even between the central banks themselves! The Fed’s largesse worked and trust was maintained.

End of quote.

I commend the rest of the article to you.

Kim Dotcom planning a crowdfunded, secure Internet replacement – Meganet

Kim Dotcom is a highly intelligent, practical Internet entrepreneur that the MPAA had the US Government target some 3 years ago, breaking many laws in doing so. Having successfully replaced Mega Upload with MEGA and got back into business whilst he is on bail in NZ, he is now planning a secure Internet that uses block chaining to scatter the components of a file all over the global network and then reassemble them, making it very unlikely the file can be accessed and decrypted in transit.

This fascinating interview is broken into Part 1 and Part 2.

Is the Fed Preparing to Topple US Dollar? – F. William Engdahl

Another excellent article by F. William Engdahl:

Unusual remarks and actions by the outgoing head of the Bank of England and other central banking insiders strongly suggest that there is a very ugly scenario in the works to end the role of the US dollar as world reserve currency. In the process, this would involve that the Fed deliberately triggers a dramatic economic depression. If this scenario is actually deployed in coming months, Donald Trump will go down in history books as the second Hebert Hoover, and the world economy will be pushed into the worst collapse since the 1930s. Here are some elements worth considering. 

Bank of England speech

The about-to-retire head of the very special Bank of England, Mark Carney, delivered a remarkable speech at the recent annual meeting of central bankers and finance elites at Jackson Hole Wyoming on August 23. The 23-page address to fellow central bankers and financial insiders is clearly a major signal of where the Powers That Be who run world central banks plan to take the world. 

Carney addresses obvious flaws with the post-1944 dollar reserve system, noting that, “…a destabilising asymmetry at the heart of the IMFS (International Monetary and Financial System) is growing. While the world economy is being reordered, the US dollar remains as important as when Bretton Woods collapsed.” He states bluntly, “…In the longer term, we need to change the game…Risks are building, and they are structural.” What he then goes on to outline is a remarkably detailed blueprint for global central bank transformation of the dollar order, a revolutionary shift.

Carney discusses the fact that China as the world leading trading nation is the obvious candidate to replace the dollar as leading reserve, however, he notes, “…for the Renminbi to become a truly global currency, much more is required. Moreover, history teaches that the transition to a new global reserve currency may not proceed smoothly.” He indicates that means it often needs wars or depressions, as he cites the role of World War I forcing out sterling in favor of the US dollar. What Carney finds more immediate is a new IMF-based monetary system to replace the dominant role of the dollar. Carney declares, “While the rise of the Renminbi may over time provide a second best solution to the current problems with the IMFS, first best would be to build a multipolar system. The main advantage of a multipolar IMFS is diversification… “ He adds, “… When change comes, it shouldn’t be to swap one currency hegemon for another. Any unipolar system is unsuited to a multi-polar world… In other words he says, “Sorry, Beijing, you must wait.”

The Bank of England Governor proposes in effect that the IMF, with its multi-currency Special Drawing Rights (SDR), a basket of five currencies—dollar, Pound, Yen, Euro and now Renminbi—should play the central role creating a new monetary system: “The IMF should play a central role in informing both domestic and cross border policies. … Pooling resources at the IMF, and thereby distributing the costs across all 189 member countries…” For that to work he proposes raising the IMF SDR funds triple to $3 trillions as the core of a new monetary system.

Then Carney proposes that the IMF oversee creation of a new payments infrastructure based on an international “stablecoin.” Referring to the private Libra, he clearly states a “new Synthetic Hegemonic Currency (SHC) would be best provided by the public sector, perhaps through a network of central bank digital currencies.” Note that Carney, a former Goldman Sachs banker, is mentioned as a leading candidate to replace Christine Lagarde as IMF head. Is his speech open admission of what is being planned by the world’s leading central bankers as the next step to a world currency and global economic control? Let’s look further.

Lagarde to ECB

The Carney speech, when deciphered from its central bank language, gives us for the first time a clear roadmap where the powers that control world central banking would like to take us. The world reserve role of the US dollar must end; it must be replaced by some form of IMF SDRs as basis for a multi-currency reserve. That in turn would ultimately be based on digital money, so-called block chain currencies. Such currencies, make no mistake, would be completely controlled by central bank authorities and the IMF. That would require their often-proposed elimination of all cash in favor of digital money where every cent we spend can be monitored by the state. This cashless society would also set the stage for the next great financial crisis and the confiscation by governments of ordinary citizens’ bank deposits under new “bank bail-in” laws now on the books since 2014 in every major industrial country including the EU and USA. 

The IMF is fully behind the turn to global blockchain digital currencies and use of SDR to replace the dominant US dollar. In a little-noticed speech in November 14, 2018, IMF chief Lagarde strongly indicated that the IMF was behind central bank digital currencies as well as cashless societies. She noted very carefully, “I believe we should consider the possibility to issue digital currency. There may be a role for the state to supply money to the digital economy.” She added, “A new wind is blowing, that of digitalization…What role will remain for cash in this digital world? … demand for cash is decreasing—as shown in recent IMF work. And in ten, twenty, thirty years, who will still be exchanging pieces of paper?”

Dudley Remarks

The introduction of this central bankers’ new digital currency world will require, as Carney suggests, dramatic upheavals of the status quo, upheavals that would lead to the end of the dominant role of the US dollar since the 1944 Bretton Woods agreement. As that dollar reserve currency role is a pillar of American power in the world, for that to happen would require nothing short of catastrophe. Is this in fact what the Federal Reserve is quietly planning with its money policies? 

A remarkable hint of what might be in the works came in an OpEd by the person who until 2018 was the very important President of the New York Federal Reserve Bank, Bill Dudley, who like Mark Carney is a senior Goldman Sachs alumnus. Dudley is no minor actor in the central bankers’ world. Until last year he also was a member of the Bank for International Settlements Board of Directors and chaired the BIS Committee on Payment Settlement Systems and the Committee on the Global Financial System. 

Dudley, pointing to the Trump trade war policies and economic dangers of same, then issues the following rare undiplomatic declaration: “Trump’s re-election arguably presents a threat to the U.S. and global economy, to the Fed’s independence and its ability to achieve its employment and inflation objectives. If the goal of monetary policy is to achieve the best long-term economic outcome, then Fed officials should consider how their decisions will affect the political outcome in 2020.” While it shocked many, Dudley is merely making public what the Fed has done since its creation in 1913 — influence the course of world and US politics stealthily behind the cover of “neutral” monetary policies. Dudley suggests not “Russian interference” but rather Fed interference.

The Fed could easily tip the US into crisis. The debt levels of the US economy are at record high levels for private households, Federal government, and US corporate debt. Most US corporations have used growing debt, well over $9 trillion, to make stock buybacks rather than invest in new plant and equipment, fueling an unprecedented bubble in the S&P stocks. The rising stocks are not a sign of economic health but of a dangerous speculative bubble vulnerable to collapse. 

Were the Fed now to resume rate rises and continue its less-publicized Quantitative Tightening into 2020, a domino-style series of debt defaults, corporate bankruptcies, home mortgage foreclosures, default on car loans and student loans could quickly make a second Trump Presidency in 2020 more than doubtful. However that would be no grounds for the rest of the world opposed to Trump policies to cheer. It would also trigger collapse in major emerging market countries who have borrowed hundreds of billions denominated in US dollars, including Chinese state companies, Turkey, Argentina, Brazil to name a few. EU banks from Italy to Germany to France would fail.

If this Dudley scenario comes to pass in 2020 or not, only the key central bank actors know for sure. It is clear that, after almost eleven years since the 2008 global financial meltdown, the unprecedented central bank zero interest rate policies in the EU and until recently the US, have fueled creation of what some call an “everything bubble”, not only in stocks, in corporate and public bonds, in home prices. Is a new Fed intervention to raise rates and tighten credit the event– the deliberate central bank rupturing of this inflated bubble using the excuse of the Trump danger to the world economy– that Carney has in mind when he says, “transition to a new global reserve currency may not proceed smoothly,”? Let us hope not. The coming months will tell.

F. William Engdahl is strategic risk consultant and lecturer, he holds a degree in politics from Princeton University and is a best-selling author on oil and geopolitics, exclusively for the online magazine “New Eastern Outlook.”

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